Monday, June 14, 2021

What is Cargo Manifest in Shipping business ?

 Manifest in simple term is mean by to show something clearly, hence Cargo manifest is a document listing cargo, passengers and crew  of ship, aircraft or a vehicle such truck, rail or wagon. this document enable serves the need of official of custom authority or any body. today we will learn in short about Cargo manifest.

ARTICLE BY

Mr. Meet Markana (Documentation Executive at Savino Del Bene)

A manifest, in general, is a complete list of the cargo or passengers. Just like the cargo manifest, the passenger manifest lists details of all the passengers who are on board a ship or airplane. This list would include details of the crewmembers as well.

A cargo manifest is a consolidated list of all the cargo that is on board a cargo vessel. The list of all cargo carried on the vessel will appear under the vessel name and identification marks of the vessel.



EXAMPLE-        

Customer A in New York buys 1000 boxes from company B in Kolkata, India. Company B ships these gensets by a cargo vessel. The vessel carries other electrical goods and consumer durables meant for customers En route and in New York.

The cargo manifest of the ship will show the 1000 gensets purchased by customer A as well as the other electrical goods and consumer durables that are shipped on the vessel for the other customers.

Contents of a Cargo Manifest

Generally, the following details are shown in cargo manifests:

  1. ·       Operator name and details
  2. ·       Consignor information
  3. ·       Document or Bill of Lading number
  4. ·       Quantity, type, and description of goods
  5. ·       Consignee information
  6. ·       Shipping route


Who Uses the Cargo Manifest and Why?

While the cargo manifest is important to all concerned parties to the cargo carried on the ship, most importantly, it is the port customs who require the cargo manifest to allow the ship to unload its cargo on the port. It is usually the responsibility of the chief officer of the ship to submit the cargo manifest to the port customs.



   

Monday, June 7, 2021

What is Voyage data recorder and how it help to ships ??

Voyage data recorder is system designed for vessel to comply with SOLAS requirement of IMO guidelines, main function of VDR is to store information in secure and retrievable form, considering the position, and movement of vessel from start position to incident point. it acts like black box.

What is voyage data recorder and how it help to ships ?


VDR records the command and control of vessel over the duration from one point to end incident. it also records the voice of vessel bridge. the data collecting assembly continuously collects onboard activity for 12 hours.

Passenger ships and ships other than passenger ships of 3000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on and after 1st july 2002 must carry VDR devices with them.

Now we discuss some practicality of VDR, then When MV X-press vessel sunk then sri-lankan authority recovered the VDR from ship, this will enable the legal body to know about the actual or possible reason of fire and the incident thereof...though salvage group could not transfer ship from deep seas as it was rest to bed.

So friends if you like this article please share and if you would like to contribute something to this article then feel free to contact us.


Saturday, June 5, 2021

What is vessel traffic service (VTS) ?

 Hello friends, today i will tell you about vessel traffic service (VTS), in simple language vessel traffic is similar to traffic in air that is aircraft or vehicle in land, it is system by which marine traffic that is ships, tugs and other objects at sea are monitored, it is established by port authorities.

So what is main object of VTS, the main object of vessel traffic service to provide active monitoring navigational assistance to vessel in particular route or busy areas of seas. there are mainly two types of VTS, one is under surveillance and one without surveillance i.e., that is actively monitored.

what is vessel traffic service


if we talk about working of VTS then it involves close connection between RADAR, and radio telephonic exchange with close circuit infrastructure.

thus any vessel coming towards port area then it is guided and monitored by VTS, they are given special signal so as to ensure smooth passing in waterways, in case there is danger VTS operator directly gets in contact with ships staff.

thus mainly very high frequency is main way to connect with VTS and on other side there are number of ways to communicate either by email or AIS or phone.

Thus to conclude VTS serve the duty of collection, analyzing and providing information.

Wednesday, June 2, 2021

What is meant by vessel husbandry ?

 Hello friends, today i will discuss about topic known as vessel husbandry, as you know vessel in general language we tell it as a boat or ship, vessel is large, and husbandry in simple meaning is to look after something. hence in all we combine and comes to know as to look after the vessel. giving it a formal touch vessel husbandry is meant by managing the affairs of the ship when it comes to port or at port side including other activities such as custom formalities, fueling and supply and repairs too.

Basically process of vessel husbandry starts when vessel is schedule to come to a particular port  and its arrival at port according to management of shipping company as per the service or routing.

What is meant by vessel husbandry ?


Usually all payments related to vessel related and container related is completed well in advance before arrival of ship at port. shipping company get registered its ship coming to a port with port authority and with custom board of that particular area.

All the vessel comes to port has rotation number if it is a regular vessel, if any vessel coming at port for first time then it informed to port and custom well in advance, duly all certificates of vessel are demanded so as to ensure its get registered with customs and vessel is validated.

As ship is registered with customs it gets its rotations number after getting this number, vessel is registered with port and VCN number which is vessel call number is created.

All payments such as light dues should paid well in advance by shipping company to port before vessel arrives, light dues are calculated on basis of gross registered tonnage of vessel.

So this is just brief about vessel husbandry.

Tuesday, June 1, 2021

What is Sea port congestion ??

Sea port congestion in normal term is meant by congestion caused by logistics activities performed at port side, normally we relates the same with many more elements and factor. congestion refers to state of being very full of people or traffic. port congestion happens when port capacity is full.

Port get accumulated with lot of cargo and ship takes long times to load and unload the cargo, which may be due to direct factors and indirect factors. either ship arriving late or due to natural factors such as cyclone the movement of cargo is blocked at port due to cyclone alert.

port congestion directly affect cargo owners, shipping companies and port management. Hence to recover from such activities port operates at high efficiency and at more manpower.

what is port congestion

Factors which give rise to port congestion:

1) Inadequate manpower.

2) Improper port management.

3) Improper tools and equipment at port.

4) Stoppage of port activities due to natural factors.

5) Improper ship schedules.

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Tuesday, May 4, 2021

What is Mate Receipt

 

Mate Receipt:

Mate receipt is a receipt issued by the Commanding Officer of the vessel when the goods are loaded onto the ship. It is the first proof that goods are loaded on a ship. Mate's receipt is first issued to Port Trust officials. After paying the full amount at the port, the exporter or agent collects this receipt from the Port Trust Authorities. Mate's receipt is freely transmitted. It must be submitted to the shipping company in order to obtain a loading bill. The upload bill is amended on the basis of the acquisition of a partner.

Mate's acquisition is not a title deed. It's just a receipt for goods. However, it is an important document as without it, the exporter will not be able to obtain a title deed, that is, a loading bill.




Types of Mate receipt (mate's receipt and bill of lading )

(a) Clean Receipt: The shipowner issues a clean receipt, if he or she is satisfied that the goods are properly packaged and there is no error in packing or packing.

(b) Qualified Receipt: A qualified receipt is issued when the Commanding Officer of the vessel is not satisfied with the packaging and the shipping company is not neutral.

Contents of Mate receipt:

(a) The name and logo of the delivery line.

(b) The name and address of the sender.

(c) The name and number of the vessel.

(d) The name of the loading port.

(e) The name of the export port and the place of delivery.

(f) Marks and container number.

(g) Packing and description of container.

(h) Total number of containers and packages.

(I) Description of goods in bulk.

(i) The shape of the vessel and the number of the mark.

(k) Total weight in kg. and volume up to cubic meters.

(I) Sending billing number and date.

(m) Signature and initials of the Chief Executive Officer.

Significance of Mate Receipt:

(a) Receipt of goods received for shipping.

(b) It is a transferable document. It must be transferred to the shipping company in order to get a load credit.

(c) The Loading Bill, which is the title of the property, is amended on the basis of the acquisition of a spouse.

(d) empowers the exporter to cancel port reliance requirements on Port Trust officials.

Saturday, May 1, 2021

Elements Affecting Export Payment Terms

The accompanying components influence the installment choices in the global market of export payment terms:



(a) Nature of Product: For the situation of transitory and shopper merchandise long haul credit isn't attractive. Subsequently, the installment technique ought to be "Records against Payment". Be that as it may, on account of capital merchandise, the exporter may permit "Conceded Payment terms". 

(b) Creditworthiness of Buyer: It is alluring to ask about the reliability of new shipper through financial channel or a deputed specialist in the unfamiliar country. On the off chance that the reliability of the merchant is dicey it is alluring to go for "Reports against Payment". 

(c) Exchange and Import Controls in Importing Country: The exporter should consider trade and import guidelines in the shipper's country. it ought to be guaranteed that the shipper is in a situation to satisfy every one of the conventions set down regarding the installment terms concurred between them. 

(d) Competitors' Credit Terms: An exporter should contemplate the installment terms offered by the contenders. On the off chance that the installment terms of the contenders are tough, liberal installment terms can assist the exporter with expanding his piece of the pie. 

(e) Economic Situation in Importer's Country: If the bringing in economy is confronting serious monetary emergency, an exporter ought not danger his installment by broadening credit. The monetary emergency may bring about downgrading, government impedance and control on settlement of money between nations. 

(f) Size of Export Order: If the size of the request is little, an exporter ought to favor "Reports against Payment". Then again, if the size of the request is enormous, an exporter can permit "Reports against Acceptance", as a term of installment. 

(g) Financial Position of the Exporter: If an exporter faces a genuine monetary emergency, he may not like to stretch out long haul credit to an unfamiliar purchaser. Under an exceptionally rigid monetary condition, an exporter may likewise request advance before the execution of the request.

 (h) Relations with the Importer: If the exporter has great and supporting exchange relations with the merchant, he may not spare a moment to stretch out liberal fare terms to the shipper. he may not stop for a second to stretch out liberal fare terms to the merchant.


Saturday, April 10, 2021

All about custom house agent exam syllabus || CHA exam

 Hello friends, in this post i will tell you about custom house agent exam syllabus || CHA exam

this exam is conducted every year by  Central board of  indirect taxes and customs, department of revenue, ministry of finance, government of India. also known as CBLR / CHA exam.

All about custom house agent exam syllabus || CHA exam


Custom house agent exam syllabus

This exam generally covers topics from Customs Act, 1962 besides Customs Tariff Act, 1975 and Foreign Trade Act 1992, but major part of CHA exam syllabus will be covered from custom act, 1962, hence below given full content of this act in different chapters.

Chapter I - Preliminary

 

Section 1. Short title, extent and commencement.—

 

(1) This Act may be called the Customs Act, 1962.

(2) It extends to the whole of India1[and, save as otherwise provided in this Act, it applies also to any offence or contravention thereunder committed outside India by any person.]

(3) It shall come into force on such date2 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.


 Section 2.  Definitions. –

 

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,

3[(1)     "adjudicating authority" means any authority competent to pass any order or decision under this Act, but does not include the [Board, Commissioner (Appeals)] or Appellate Tribunal;]

3[(1A)   "aircraft" has the same meaning as in the Aircraft Act, 1934 (22 of 1934);]

3[(1B)   "Appellate Tribunal" means the Customs, Excise and [Service Tax] Appellate Tribunal constituted under section 129;]

6[(2) “assessment” means determination of the dutiability of any goods and the amount of duty, tax, cess or any other sum so payable, if any, under this Act or under the Customs Tariff Act, 1975 (hereinafter referred to as the Customs Tariff Act) or under any other law for the time being in force, with reference to—
(a) the tariff classification of such goods as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Customs Tariff Act;
(b) the value of such goods as determined in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the Customs Tariff Act;
(c) exemption or concession of duty, tax, cess or any other sum, consequent upon any notification issued therefor under this Act or under the Customs Tariff Act or under any other law for the time being in force;
(d) the quantity, weight, volume, measurement or other specifics where such duty, tax, cess or any other sum is leviable on the basis of the quantity, weight, volume, measurement or other specifics of such goods;
(e) the origin of such goods determined in accordance with the provisions of the Customs Tariff Act or the rules made thereunder, if the amount of duty, tax, cess or any other sum is affected by the origin of such goods;
(f) any other specific factor which affects the duty, tax, cess or any other sum payable on such goods, and includes provisional assessment, self-assessment, re-assessment and any assessment in which the duty assessed is nil;

(3)     "baggage" includes unaccompanied baggage but does not include motor vehicles;

7[(3A)  “beneficial owner” means any person on whose behalf the goods are being imported or exported or who exercises effective control over the goods being imported or exported;]

(4)     "bill of entry" means a bill of entry referred to in section 46;

(5)     "bill of export" means a bill of export referred to in section 50;

(6)     "Board" means the [9[Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs]constituted under the Central Boards of Revenue Act, 1963 (54 of 1963)];

(7)     "coastal goods" means goods, other than imported goods, transported in a vessel from one port in India to another;

10[(7A)   "Commissioner (Appeals)" means a person appointed to be a Commissioner of Customs (Appeals) under sub-section (1) of section 4;]

31(7B)   "common portal" means the Common Customs Electronic Portal referred to in section 154C;

11 [(8)     12[Principal Commissioner of Customs or Commissioner of Customs], except for the purposes of Chapter XV, includes an Additional Commissioner of Customs;]

(9)     "conveyance" includes a vessel, an aircraft and a vehicle;

(10)    "customs airport" means any airport appointed under clause (a) of section 7 to be a customs airport 13[and includes a place appointed under clause (aa) of that section to be an air freight station];

(11)    "customs area" means the area of a customs station 14[or a warehouse] and includes any area in which imported goods or export goods are ordinarily kept before clearance by Customs Authorities;

(12)    "customs port" means any port appointed under clause (a) of section 7 to be a customs port 15[, and includes a place appointed under clause (aa) of that section to be an inland container depot];

(13)    "customs station" means any customs port, 16[customs airport, international courier terminal, foreign post office] or land customs station;

(14)    "dutiable goods" means any goods which are chargeable to duty and on which duty has not been paid;

(15)    "duty" means a duty of customs leviable under this Act;

(16)    "entry" in relation to goods means an entry made in a bill of entry, shipping bill or bill of export and includes 17[*  *  *] the entry made under the regulations made under section 84;

(17)    "examination", in relation to any goods, includes measurement and weighment thereof;

(18)    "export", with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means taking out of India to a place outside India;

(19)    "export goods" means any goods which are to be taken out of India to a place outside India;

(20)    "exporter", in relation to any goods at any time between their entry for export and the time when they are exported, includes 18[any owner, beneficial owner] or any person holding himself out to be the exporter;

19[(20A) “foreign post office” means any post office appointed under clause (e) of sub-section (1) of section 7 to be a foreign post office;]   

(21)    "foreign-going vessel or aircraft" means any vessel or aircraft for the time being engaged in the carriage of goods or passengers between any port or airport in India and any port or airport outside India, whether touching any intermediate port or airport in India or not, and includes –

         (i)       any naval vessel of a foreign Government taking part in any naval exercises;

         (ii)     any vessel engaged in fishing or any other operations outside the territorial waters of India;

         (iii)    any vessel or aircraft proceeding to a place outside India for any purpose whatsoever;

20[(21A) "Fund" means the Consumer Welfare Fund established under section 12C of the Central Excises and Salt Act, 1944 (1 of 1944);]

(22)    "goods" includes -

         (a) vessels, aircrafts and vehicles;

         (b) stores;

         (c) baggage;

         (d) currency and negotiable instruments; and

         (e) any other kind of movable property;

(23)    "import", with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means bringing into India from a place outside India;

(24)    21["arrival manifest or import manifest"]or "import report" means the manifest or report required to be delivered under section 30;

(25)    "imported goods" means any goods brought into India from a place outside India but does not include goods which have been cleared for home consumption;

(26)    "importer", in relation to any goods at any time between their importation and the time when they are cleared for home consumption, includes 22[any owner, beneficial owner] or any person holding himself out to be the importer;

(27)    "India" includes the territorial waters of India;

(28)    "Indian Customs Waters" means the 23[waters extending into the sea up to the limit of 24[Exclusive Economic Zone under section 7] of the Territorial Waters, Continental Shelf, Exclusive Economic Zone and other Maritime Zones Act, 1976, (80 of 1976)] and includes any bay, gulf, harbour, creek or tidal river;

25[(28A) “international courier terminal” means any place appointed under clause (f) of sub-section (1) of section 7 to be an international courier terminal;]

(29)    "land customs station" means any place appointed under clause (b) of section 7 to be a land customs station;

(30)    "market price", in relation to any goods, means the wholesale price of the goods in the ordinary course of trade in India;

26[(30A) "National Tax Tribunal" means the National Tax Tribunal established under section 3 of the National Tax Tribunal Act, 2005 (49 0f 2005);]

27[(30AA) “notification” means notification published in the Official Gazette and the expression “notify” with its cognate meaning and grammatical variation shall be construed accordingly;]

25[(30B) “passenger name record information” means the records prepared by an operator of any aircraft or vessel or vehicle or his authorised agent for each journey booked by or on behalf of any passenger;] 

(31)    "person-in-charge" means, -

         (a) in relation to a vessel, the master of the vessel;

         (b) in relation to an aircraft, the commander or pilot-in-charge of the aircraft;

         (c) in relation to a railway train, the conductor, guard or other person having the chief direction of the train;

         (d) in relation to any other conveyance, the driver or other person-in-charge of the conveyance;

(32)    "prescribed" means prescribed by regulations made under this Act;

(33)    "prohibited goods" means any goods the import or export of which is subject to any prohibition under this Act or any other law for the time being in force but does not include any such goods in respect of which the conditions subject to which the goods are permitted to be imported or exported have been complied with;

(34)    "proper officer", in relation to any functions to be performed under this Act, means the officer of customs who is assigned those functions by the Board or the 12[Principal Commissioner of Customs or Commissioner of Customs];

(35)    "regulations" means the regulations made by the Board under any provision of this Act;

(36)    "rules" means the rules made by the Central Government under any provision of this Act;

(37)    "shipping bill" means a shipping bill referred to in section 50;

(38)    "stores" means goods for use in a vessel or aircraft and includes fuel and spare parts and other articles of equipment, whether or not for immediate fitting;

(39)    "smuggling", in relation to any goods, means any act or omission which will render such goods liable to confiscation under section 111 or section 113;

(40)    "tariff value", in relation to any goods, means the tariff value fixed in respect thereof under sub-section (2) of section 14;

(41)    "value", in relation to any goods, means the value thereof determined in accordance with the provisions of 28[sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of Section 14];

(42)    "vehicle" means conveyance of any kind used on land and includes a railway vehicle;

29[(43)    "warehouse" means a public warehouse licensed under section 57 or a private warehouse licensed under section 58 or a special warehouse licensed under section 58A;]

(44)    "warehoused goods" means goods deposited in a warehouse;

30[***]


Chapter II - Officers of Customs


There shall be the following classes of officers of customs, namely:-

2[(a)     Principal Chief Commissioners of Customs;

(b)        Chief Commissioners of Customs;

(c)        Principal Commissioners of Customs;

(d)       Commissioners of Customs;

(e)        Commissioners of Customs (Appeals);

(f)        Joint Commissioners of Customs;

(g)        Deputy Commissioners of Customs;

(h)        Assistant Commissioner of Customs;

(i)       such other class of officers of customs as may be appointed for the purposes of this Act.]

 

[Section 4Appointment of officers of customs. -

 

(1) The [Board] may appoint such persons as it thinks fit to be officers of customs.

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), 5[Board may authorise a 6[Principal Chief Commissioner of Customs or Chief Commissioner of Customs or a Principal Commissioner of Customs or Commissioner of Customs] or a 7[Joint or Assistant or Deputy Commissioner of Customs] to appoint officers of customs below the rank of Assistant Commissioner of Customs.]

 

Section 5.  Powers of officers of customs. -

 

(1) Subject to such conditions and limitations as the Board may impose, an officer of customs may exercise the powers and discharge the duties conferred or imposed on him under this Act.

(2) An officer of customs may exercise the powers and discharge the duties conferred or imposed under this Act on any other officer of customs who is subordinate to him.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, 8[a 9[Commissioner (Appeals)]] shall not exercise the powers and discharge the duties conferred or imposed on an officer of customs other than those specified in 10[Chapter XV, section 108 and subsection (1D) of section 110].

 

Section 6Entrustment of functions of Board and customs officers on certain other officers. -

 

The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, entrust either conditionally or unconditionally to any officer of the Central or the State Government or a local authority any functions of the Board or any officer of customs under this Act.

  1. Substituted by Act 22 of 1995, section 52, for section 3(w.e.f. 26-5-1995). Earlier section 3 was amended by Act 29 of 1988, section 2(w.e.f. 1-7-1998) and by Act 44 of 1980, section 50 and Fifth Schedule, Part I-2(w.e.f.11-10-1992).
  2. Substituted by Act 25 of 2014, section 79, for clauses (a), (b, (c), (cc), (d), (e) and (f)(w.e.f. 6-8-2014). Earlier clause (cc) was inserted by Act 27 of 1999, section 101(w.e.f. 11-05-1999) and clause (e) was amended by Act 8 of 2011, section 37(w.e.f. 08-04-2011). Clauses (a), (b), (c), (cc), (d), (e), and (f) before substitution by Act 25 of 2014, stood as under:

“(a)    Chief Commissioners of Customs;

(b)     Commissioners of Customs;

 (c)     Commissioners of Customs (Appeals);

(cc)     Joint Commissioners of Customs;

(d)     Deputy Commissioners of Customs;

(e)      Assistant Commissioner of Customs; and

(f)       such other class of officers of customs as may be appointed for the purposes of this Act.


Chapter III 1[Appointment of Customs ports, airports, etc.]


Section 7.  Appointment of customs ports, airports, etc.-

 

[(1)] The [Board] may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint -

 

(a)   the ports and airports which alone shall be customs ports or customs airports for the unloading of imported goods and the loading of export goods or any class of such goods;

[(aa)    the places which alone shall be inland 5[container depots or air freight stations] for the unloading of imported goods and the loading of export goods or any class of such goods;]

 (b)   the places which alone shall be land customs stations for the clearance of goods imported or to be exported by land or inland water or any class of such goods;

(c)   the routes by which alone goods or any class of goods specified in the notification may pass by land or inland water into or out of India, or to or from any land customs station from or to any  land frontier;

(d)   the ports which alone shall be coastal ports for the carrying on of trade in coastal goods or any class of such goods with all or any specified ports in India.

6[(e)  the post offices which alone shall be foreign post offices for the clearance of imported goods or export goods or any class of such goods;

(f)    the places which alone shall be international courier terminals for the clearance of imported goods or export goods or any class of such goods.]

7[ (2) Every notification issued under this section and in force immediately before the commencement of the Finance Act, 2003 shall, on such commencement, be deemed to have been issued under the provisions of this section as amended by section 105 of the Finance Act, 2003 and shall continue to have the same force and effect after such commencement until it is amended, rescinded or superseded under the provisions of this section.]

 Section 8Power to approve landing places and specify limits of customs area

 

.The 8[Principal Commissioner of Customs or Commissioner of Customs] may, -

 

(a)  approve proper places in any customs port or customs airport or coastal port for the unloading and loading of goods or for any class of goods;

(b)  specify the limits of any customs area.

 

9[Section 9.    ****]

 

Section 10Appointment of boarding stations. -

 

The 8[Principal Commissioner of Customs or Commissioner of Customs] may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint, in or near any customs port, a boarding station for the purpose of boarding of, or disembarkation from, vessels by officers of customs.


Chapter IV - Prohibitions on importation and exportation of goods


Section 11.  Power to prohibit importation or exportation of goods.-

 

 (1) If the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary so to do for any of the purposes specified in sub-section (2), it may, by notification in the Official Gazette, prohibit either absolutely or subject to such conditions (to be fulfilled before or after
   clearance) as may be specified in the notification, the import or export of goods of any specified description.

 (2)    The purposes referred to in sub-section (1) are the following :-

(a)    the maintenance of the security of India;

(b)    the maintenance of public order and standards of decency or morality;

(c)    the prevention of smuggling;

(d)    the prevention of shortage of goods of any description;

(e)    the conservation of foreign exchange and the safeguarding of balance of payments;

(f)     the prevention of injury to the economy of the country by the uncontrolled import or export of gold or silver;

(g)    the prevention of surplus of any agricultural product or the product of fisheries;

(h)    the maintenance of standards for the classification, grading or marketing of goods in international trade;

(i)     the establishment of any industry;

(j)     the prevention of serious injury to domestic production of goods of any description;

(k)    the protection of human, animal or plant life or health;

(l)     the protection of national treasures of artistic, historic or archaeological value;

(m)   the conservation of exhaustible natural resources;

(n)    the protection of patents, trademarks 1[, copyrights, designs and geographical indications];

(o)    the prevention of deceptive practices;

(p)    the carrying on of foreign trade in any goods by the State, or by a Corporation owned or controlled by the State to the exclusion, complete or partial, of citizens of India;

(q)    the fulfilment of obligations under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security;

(r)     the implementation of any treaty, agreement or convention with any country;

(s)     the compliance of imported goods with any laws which are applicable to similar goods produced or manufactured in India;

(t)     the prevention of dissemination of documents containing any matter which is likely to prejudicially affect friendly relations with any foreign State or is derogatory to national prestige;

(u)    the prevention of the contravention of any law for the time being in force; and

(v)    any other purpose conducive to the interests of the general public.

 

  1. Substituted by Finance Act, 2013 (17 of 2013, section 64, for “coprights” (w.e.f. 10-05-2013).

Tuesday, January 26, 2021

What is International maritime organization (IMO), its PURPOSE and ELEMENTS

What is International maritime organization (IMO), its PURPOSE and ELEMENTS

 

With development in world maritime activities, ship maritime since decades had resulted in factors that may with time caused the foundation of the International sea association or International maritime organization IMO was the same.

 

Of the different ventures that have been prospering around the globe, 'ship maritime' can be considered as the really worldwide industry.

 

This is on the grounds that it serves over 90% of the world's exchange via freight transportation and other trader dispatches that do so neatly and cost-adequately by overseas shipping companies. Therefore, a specific vessel roams and administered by an administration chain that traverses numerous nations, likewise these ships through the vast majority of their occasions adrift between different purviews and scenarios.

 

Thusly, it was felt toward the start of the last decade that there was a need for a widespread administering body that thus set down principles and guidelines to control the transportation cycle and the business around the world in ship maritime.

 

Subsequently the International sea association appeared.

 

The main worldwide settlement of any sort between countries can be followed back to the arrangement of 'safety of life at sea' – SOLAS, which was received by a couple of countries, post the catastrophe of Titanic.

 

Despite the fact that the IMO was set up in 1948 in Geneva, it was not implemented until 1959 at a gathering held in London, its central command.

 

What was purpose of the International Maritime Organization (IMO)

 

The primary mission and duty of the International sea association are to create and safeguard an exhaustive system of guidelines and strategies for the transportation business and its exercises like the oceanic security, wellbeing, specialized collaboration, ecological concerns, and legitimate issues.

 

IMO has been effectively discarding this assignment since its beginning with the specific advisory groups and sub-boards at the central command. The meetings of these panels are gone to by various representatives and specialists from the part nations and furthermore by non-administrative and intergovernmental associations.

 

Non-administrative associations may be given consultive status in the event that they exhibit ability and skill to contribute as indicated by the necessities of IMO.

 

Design of the International Maritime Organization (IMO)

 

The overseeing body of the IMO is a gathering that meets bi-yearly. The get together involves all the part states. In the mediating time between the Assembly meetings, a committee goes about as the administering body. This chamber involves 40 part states who are chosen by the get together for a predetermined timeframe.

 

The panels of different errands and obligations referenced above are likewise administered and seen by these overseeing bodies. The secretariat has a labor force of more than 300 headed by the Secretary-General. The Secretary-General is chosen by the Assembly and holds his post for a length of 4 years.

 

Occasions and Awards By IMO (IMO 2020)

 

The worldwide sea the association likewise puts together a few occasions and grants to expand mindfulness about the oceanic business and perceive the individuals who have made a critical commitment.

 

A portion of the headliners and grants by the global oceanic association (IMO) are:

 

World Maritime Day

Day of the Seafarer

IMO Awards – Award for uncommon dauntlessness adrift and the global oceanic prize

IMO Ministerial Conference

Ports and Facilitation

 

 

Elements of IMO, four pillars of IMO,  INTERNATIONAL MARITIME LAW

 

Worldwide sea law remains on four in number columns, in particular Law of Sovereignty of Nations, Law of Freedom of the High oceans, Law of Freedom of Contract and Legal The personality of a Ship. Every nation is sovereign inside its own political boundaries, in which its laws apply.

 

The significant regions of concern, which the International oceanic association has had the option to bring under guideline, have been the counteraction of mishaps, setting up wellbeing principles for ships and different vessels (counting plan and materials) for the part states to keep, keeping up adherence to the setup arrangements of security and security, the anticipation of contamination, and other avoidable human debacles.

 

IMO additionally encourages specialized co-activity among part states, setting up a tryout and checking plan for these principles, norms lastly observing liabilities and pay if there should be an occurrence of penetration of any of these guidelines.

 

Consequently, the International sea association is assuming a vital part in present-day culture's advancement towards a superior and solid business and transportation climate reflecting IMO 2020.